A Taxonomy of Social Cues for
When using the taxonomy, please cite as Feine, J., Gnewuch U., Morana S. and Maedche A. (2019): “A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. To read the paper, please click here.
The CA belongs to either one of the two sexes (male, female) or it is ambiguous.
Male, female, ambiguous CA appearance.
Gender of agent visualization leads to attribution of various gender stereotypes towards the agent (Forlizzi et al. 2007; Nunamaker et al. 2001; Louwerse et al. 2005; Niculescu et al. 2010; Brahnam, Angeli 2012; Beldad et al. 2016; Hayashi 2016; Kraemer et al. 2016). Female agents are more effective in reducing user frustration because they are more associated with empathy (Hone 2006). Gender ambiguous agents are not preferred by the user (Niculescu et al. 2010). Other did not find an impact of the agent gender (Li et al. 2017). Moreover, user do have a preference of a certain gender of the agent (Cowell, Stanney 2005).