A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents

When using the taxonomy, please cite as Feine, J., Gnewuch U., Morana S. and Maedche A. (2019): “A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. To read the paper, please click here.

Social cue: Response time
Communication system: Invisible
Cue category: Chronemics
Cue Description
The amount of time it takes for the CA to respond to the user’s input.
Cue example
Immediate response (e.g., 0 seconds delay), slow response (e.g., 2 seconds delay).
Cue impact
Response latency of the agent impacts the believe that users are interacting with a computer or human (Morkes et al. 1999; Appel et al. 2012). Also using longer pauses shows dominance in explanations and questions (Gebhard et al. 2014) but can also lead to interactional conflicts (Danilav et al. 2013).
Reference List
1. Appel, J., Pütten, A. von der, Krämer, N. C., & Gratch, J. (2012). Does Humanity Matter?: Analyzing the Importance of Social Cues and Perceived Agency of a Computer System for the Emergence of Social Reactions during Human-Computer Interaction. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction (2012:2), pp. 1-10.
2. Danilava, S., Busemann, S., Schommer, C., & Ziegler, G. (2013). Why are you Silent?-Towards Responsiveness in Chatbots. In Avec le Temps! Time, Tempo, and Turns in Human-Computer Interaction". Workshop at CHI 2013, Paris, France .
3. Gebhard, P., Baur, T., Damian, I., Mehlmann, G., Wagner, J., & André, E. (2014). Exploring Interaction Strategies for Virtual Characters to Induce Stress in Simulated Job Interviews. In : AAMAS 14, Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems (pp. 661-668). Richland, SC: International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.
4. Morkes, J., Kernal, H., & Nass, C. (1999). Effects of Humor in Task-Oriented Human-Computer Interaction and Computer-Mediated Communication: A Direct Test of SRCT Theory. Human-Computer Interaction (14:4), pp. 395-435.
5. Gnewuch, Ulrich; Morana, Stefan; Adam, Marc; and Maedche, Alexander, "Faster is Not Always Better: Understanding the Effect of Dynamic Response Delays in Human-Chatbot Interaction" (2018). Research Papers. 113.
6. Cassell, J. (2000). Embodied conversational interface agents? Communications of the ACM 43 (4), 70?78.
7. Thiebaux, M., S. Marsella, A. N. Marshall and M. Kallmann (2008). Smartbody: Behavior realization for embodied conversational agents. In International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent SystemsInternational Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.
8. Kopp, S. and I. Wachsmuth (2004). Synthesizing multimodal utterances for conversational agents Computer animation and virtual worlds 15 (1), 39?52.