A Taxonomy of Social Cues for
When using the taxonomy, please cite as Feine, J., Gnewuch U., Morana S. and Maedche A. (2019): “A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. To read the paper, please click here.
The CA makes sounds that get in the way of fluent speech.
CA: "uhs", "ums", stuttering.
Hesitation (mhm, eh, uhm etc.) sounds enable the agent to answer the user before the complete message is transcribed and are perceived as more polite, more efficient, better at indicating when to speak (Skantze, Hjalmarsson 2013), and can be used to indicate understanding (Cassel et al. 1999). Another study revealed mixed evaluation results ranging from inappropriate behavior to a more humanized experience (Pfeifer, Bickmore 2009). Non-fluencies portray a lack of expertise (Cowell, Stanney 2005).